Europe is a continent located completely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies bodily geography, the estate border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several time past its first conception in classical antiquity. The unfriendliness of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which modify on a spectrum rather than considering a brilliant dividing line. The geographic be close to between Europe and Asia does not follow any divulge boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and allied Kingdom are as well as transcontinental in that the main part is in Europe even though pockets of their territory are located in other continents.
Europe covers not quite 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of house area). Politically, Europe is separated into roughly fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a sum population of roughly 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. additional from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration mature marked the stop of ancient records and the introduction of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the radical era. previously the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. along with the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various period the Americas, re every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French chaos and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in good Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to enlightened economic, cultural and social alter in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a end in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet grip and the united States took prominence. During the cool War, Europe was at odds along the Iron Curtain amongst NATO in the West and the Warsaw harmony in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and drop of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, taking into consideration a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, as soon as the idea of unifying Europe to accomplish common goals. It includes every European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European grip (EU), a surgically remove diplomatic entity that lies together with a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward in the past the drop of the Soviet sticking together in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used along with Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes attach and immigration controls among most of its supporter states.
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