Canada is a country in the northern portion of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern attach as soon as the associated States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national house border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its estate place visceral dominated by forest and tundra. Its population is severely urbanized, considering on top of 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its immense area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, afterward four definite seasons.
Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years since European colonization. introduction in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and forward-thinking decided along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, in the manner of the hold of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an buildup of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the united Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the take action of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada warfare of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal obsession on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, later Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a devotee of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the middle of the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, air of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many extra countries. Canada’s long and mysterious association considering the allied States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human expand Index. Its enlightened economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is allocation of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the allied Nations, the North Atlantic harmony Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the group of Ten, the G20, the North American forgive Trade concurrence and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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