France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories adjoin French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a whole area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic later its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and trailer centre. additional major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the initiation of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The settlement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European aptitude in the late middle Ages, bearing in mind its victory in the Hundred Years’ clash (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars in the midst of Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military faculty in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of liberal history’s early republics and drafting the declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took aptitude and standard the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. like the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous accord of governments culminating behind the foundation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World case I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World case II, but came under endeavor by the Axis powers in 1940. past liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was standard and forward-looking dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately all the new colonies became independent in the 1960s, next most retaining close economic and military associates gone France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World origin Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving with reference to 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country later the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs competently in international rankings of education, health care, enthusiasm expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great aptitude in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the united Nations Security Council later the talent to veto and an attributed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading advocate allow in of the European sticking together and the Eurozone, and a zealot of the bureau of 7, North Atlantic deal dispensation (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and enhancement (OECD), the World Trade meting out (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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