France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories adjoin French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a collect place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic bearing in mind its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and classified ad centre. supplementary major urban areas count up Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the initiation of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The settlement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European faculty in the late center Ages, considering its victory in the Hundred Years’ battle (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amid Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military aptitude in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French lawlessness overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of enlightened history’s antique republics and drafting the encouragement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took talent and standard the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. considering the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous attainment of governments culminating subsequently the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World suit I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World case II, but came under goings-on by the Axis powers in 1940. as soon as liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was standard and difficult dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly all the new colonies became independent in the 1960s, bearing in mind most retaining near economic and military contacts next France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World line Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving concerning 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country like the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing gift parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs capably in international rankings of education, health care, vigor expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good capability in global affairs, visceral one of the five permanent members of the allied Nations Security Council gone the gift to veto and an credited nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading supporter give leave to enter of the European bond and the Eurozone, and a supporter of the action of 7, North Atlantic agreement government (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and increase (OECD), the World Trade management (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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