Europe is a continent located totally in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost allowance of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be estranged from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies brute geography, the house border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several get older before its first conception in classical antiquity. The distancing of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which modify on a spectrum rather than taking into consideration a sharp dividing line. The geographic link up amongst Europe and Asia does not follow any make a clean breast boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and allied Kingdom are as a consequence transcontinental in that the main allowance is in Europe even though pockets of their territory are located in extra continents.
Europe covers nearly 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is estranged into more or less fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a sum population of very nearly 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. new from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than near to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The drop of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration become old marked the stop of ancient chronicles and the initiation of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the advocate era. in the past the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. in the midst of the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various become old the Americas, in the region of every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French chaos and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in good Britain at the stop of the 18th century, gave rise to modern economic, cultural and social regulate in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most portion in Europe, contributing to a end in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet sticking together and the associated States took prominence. During the cool War, Europe was separated along the Iron Curtain amid NATO in the West and the Warsaw agreement in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and drop of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, in imitation of a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. new European integration by some states led to the formation of the European sticking to (EU), a cut off diplomatic entity that lies amongst a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used along with Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen place abolishes affix and immigration controls in the midst of most of its member states.
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