Canada is a country in the northern portion of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern attach following the joined States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national estate border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its home place brute dominated by reforest and tundra. Its population is extremely urbanized, with on top of 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its immense area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, when four determined seasons.
Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years past European colonization. start in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and higher approved along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, similar to the bond of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an increase of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the joined Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the be in of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada proceedings of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legitimate obsession on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, taking into account Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks along with the highest in international measurements of direction transparency, civil liberties, vibes of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many further countries. Canada’s long and puzzling membership gone the joined States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita pension globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human further Index. Its innovative economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is ration of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the allied Nations, the North Atlantic pact Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the action of Ten, the G20, the North American release Trade succession and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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