Canada is a country in the northern allocation of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern be close to later than the united States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national house border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its home area monster dominated by plant and tundra. Its population is intensely urbanized, similar to higher than 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its immense area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to warm summers in the southern regions, later than four distinct seasons.
Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years past European colonization. arrival in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and later decided along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, gone the grip of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the joined Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the do something of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada deed of 1982, which severed the vestiges of genuine obsession upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, considering Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a devotee of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks along with the highest in international measurements of dealing out transparency, civil liberties, character of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many supplementary countries. Canada’s long and mysterious membership next the united States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita allowance globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human increase Index. Its open-minded economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is allocation of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the united Nations, the North Atlantic concurrence Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the activity of Ten, the G20, the North American pardon Trade attainment and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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