Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be divided from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies beast geography, the land be next to is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity. The estrangement of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which revise on a spectrum rather than taking into consideration a smart dividing line. The geographic be next to surrounded by Europe and Asia does not follow any let pass boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and associated Kingdom are with transcontinental in that the main allocation is in Europe even if pockets of their territory are located in additional continents.
Europe covers virtually 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of home area). Politically, Europe is separated into more or less fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of just about 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. supplementary from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration epoch marked the stop of ancient history and the initiation of the center Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the innovative era. since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. in the company of the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various get older the Americas, around every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French lawlessness and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in great Britain at the stop of the 18th century, gave rise to advanced economic, cultural and social amend in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most allocation in Europe, contributing to a grow less in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet sticking to and the associated States took prominence. During the frosty War, Europe was estranged along the Iron Curtain amongst NATO in the West and the Warsaw agreement in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, as soon as a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, as soon as the idea of unifying Europe to accomplish common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. additional European integration by some states led to the formation of the European sticking to (EU), a remove embassy entity that lies between a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward previously the drop of the Soviet sticking to in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the course of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen place abolishes be next to and immigration controls along with most of its member states.
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