Europe is a continent located extremely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost portion of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be on bad terms from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies subconscious geography, the land be close to is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several get older since its first conception in classical antiquity. The hostility of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which amend on a spectrum rather than following a smart dividing line. The geographic be next to with Europe and Asia does not follow any permit boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and associated Kingdom are in addition to transcontinental in that the main share is in Europe even if pockets of their territory are located in new continents.
Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of home area). Politically, Europe is at odds into very nearly fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a sum population of virtually 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers upon much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. supplementary from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The drop of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration grow old marked the end of ancient chronicles and the arrival of the center Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the radical era. since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. in the midst of the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various era the Americas, a propos every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French mayhem and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the stop of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic, cultural and social change in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took area for the most portion in Europe, contributing to a decrease in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet sticking to and the joined States took prominence. During the cold War, Europe was estranged along the Iron Curtain in the middle of NATO in the West and the Warsaw settlement in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, in imitation of a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, subsequent to the idea of unifying Europe to reach common goals. It includes every European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. supplementary European integration by some states led to the formation of the European sticking to (EU), a surgically remove diplomatic entity that lies between a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the drop of the Soviet sticking to in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the middle of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes be close to and immigration controls in the course of most of its zealot states.
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