Europe is a continent located utterly in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost ration of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be at odds from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies instinctive geography, the house attach is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several epoch past its first conception in classical antiquity. The division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which rework upon a spectrum rather than subsequently a brilliant dividing line. The geographic attach between Europe and Asia does not follow any acknowledge boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and united Kingdom are moreover transcontinental in that the main allocation is in Europe even though pockets of their territory are located in supplementary continents.
Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of estate area). Politically, Europe is divided into more or less fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. supplementary from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than near to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The drop of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration grow old marked the stop of ancient history and the introduction of the center Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the open-minded era. since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. surrounded by the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various grow old the Americas, approaching every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French disorder and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the stop of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in good Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to modern economic, cultural and social modify in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most share in Europe, contributing to a end in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet grip and the united States took prominence. During the cool War, Europe was separated along the Iron Curtain amid NATO in the West and the Warsaw unity in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, past a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, once the idea of unifying Europe to attain common goals. It includes every European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. supplementary European integration by some states led to the formation of the European grip (EU), a cut off embassy entity that lies between a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward past the fall of the Soviet hold in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the middle of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes be next to and immigration controls in the midst of most of its supporter states.
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