Europe is a continent located extremely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost allocation of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies instinctive geography, the land affix is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several mature previously its first conception in classical antiquity. The estrangement of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than in the same way as a bright dividing line. The geographic attach in the midst of Europe and Asia does not follow any come clean boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and united Kingdom are afterward transcontinental in that the main ration is in Europe though pockets of their territory are located in supplementary continents.
Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of estate area). Politically, Europe is separated into more or less fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a sum population of roughly 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers upon much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. other from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The drop of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration period marked the stop of ancient archives and the dawn of the center Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the radical era. since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. along with the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various epoch the Americas, in this area every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French rebellion and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the stop of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in good Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to advocate economic, cultural and social bend in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most ration in Europe, contributing to a stop in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet devotion and the joined States took prominence. During the cool War, Europe was on bad terms along the Iron Curtain in the company of NATO in the West and the Warsaw deal in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, taking into consideration a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, once the idea of unifying Europe to attain common goals. It includes every European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. new European integration by some states led to the formation of the European hold (EU), a cut off embassy entity that lies amid a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward in the past the drop of the Soviet bond in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the midst of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes be close to and immigration controls accompanied by most of its advocate states.
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