Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost share of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be estranged from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies subconscious geography, the house border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several period past its first conception in classical antiquity. The unfriendliness of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which adjust upon a spectrum rather than considering a smart dividing line. The geographic affix amongst Europe and Asia does not follow any declare boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and allied Kingdom are also transcontinental in that the main share is in Europe though pockets of their territory are located in new continents.
Europe covers more or less 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of estate area). Politically, Europe is divided into practically fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a sum population of practically 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. additional from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than near to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The drop of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration period marked the stop of ancient chronicles and the coming on of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the innovative era. before the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. amongst the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various mature the Americas, as regards every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French rebellion and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the stop of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in great Britain at the stop of the 18th century, gave rise to militant economic, cultural and social change in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took area for the most share in Europe, contributing to a end in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet sticking together and the united States took prominence. During the cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain in the midst of NATO in the West and the Warsaw settlement in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, similar to the idea of unifying Europe to accomplish common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. other European integration by some states led to the formation of the European union (EU), a sever embassy entity that lies in the middle of a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward previously the drop of the Soviet devotion in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used accompanied by Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes affix and immigration controls along with most of its devotee states.
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