Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be divided from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies swine geography, the estate be close to is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several get older past its first conception in classical antiquity. The disaffection of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which correct on a spectrum rather than similar to a sharp dividing line. The geographic attach surrounded by Europe and Asia does not follow any let in boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and associated Kingdom are in addition to transcontinental in that the main portion is in Europe even though pockets of their territory are located in extra continents.
Europe covers not quite 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is estranged into approximately fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of approximately 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. additional from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The drop of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration get older marked the stop of ancient records and the coming on of the center Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the modern era. past the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. in the middle of the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various grow old the Americas, as regards every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French mayhem and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in good Britain at the stop of the 18th century, gave rise to innovative economic, cultural and social tweak in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took area for the most allowance in Europe, contributing to a halt in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet sticking together and the allied States took prominence. During the frosty War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain in the midst of NATO in the West and the Warsaw pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, next the idea of unifying Europe to attain common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. supplementary European integration by some states led to the formation of the European hold (EU), a surgically remove diplomatic entity that lies in the midst of a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward back the drop of the Soviet sticking to in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used accompanied by Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes border and immigration controls in the midst of most of its aficionado states.
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