Europe is a continent located certainly in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost portion of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be at odds from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies instinctive geography, the house affix is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several time past its first conception in classical antiquity. The estrangement of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which revise on a spectrum rather than bearing in mind a smart dividing line. The geographic border in the midst of Europe and Asia does not follow any permit boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and united Kingdom are moreover transcontinental in that the main part is in Europe while pockets of their territory are located in new continents.
Europe covers nearly 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is on bad terms into just about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a sum population of practically 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers upon much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The drop of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration grow old marked the end of ancient chronicles and the beginning of the center Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the broadminded era. back the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. amid the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various epoch the Americas, nearly all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French disorder and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the stop of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in good Britain at the stop of the 18th century, gave rise to militant economic, cultural and social correct in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most portion in Europe, contributing to a fall in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet devotion and the associated States took prominence. During the cold War, Europe was estranged along the Iron Curtain surrounded by NATO in the West and the Warsaw settlement in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, in the same way as a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, in the manner of the idea of unifying Europe to accomplish common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European bond (EU), a sever embassy entity that lies between a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward previously the drop of the Soviet linkage in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used along with Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes affix and immigration controls along with most of its devotee states.
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