Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost allocation of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be on bad terms from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies physical geography, the estate affix is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several get older before its first conception in classical antiquity. The isolation of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which correct upon a spectrum rather than behind a brilliant dividing line. The geographic be next to amid Europe and Asia does not follow any state boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and joined Kingdom are with transcontinental in that the main part is in Europe while pockets of their territory are located in new continents.
Europe covers more or less 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is separated into more or less fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a sum population of practically 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. extra from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than near to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration mature marked the stop of ancient chronicles and the introduction of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the campaigner era. since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. in the middle of the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various grow old the Americas, approximately every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French chaos and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to innovative economic, cultural and social amend in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a terminate in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet union and the associated States took prominence. During the cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw deal in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, behind a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, taking into account the idea of unifying Europe to accomplish common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. additional European integration by some states led to the formation of the European sticking together (EU), a remove embassy entity that lies in the middle of a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward back the drop of the Soviet sticking together in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used among Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes attach and immigration controls in the midst of most of its member states.
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