France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories increase French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a combination place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic next its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and poster centre. new major urban areas tally Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the introduction of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The deal of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capability in the late middle Ages, similar to its victory in the Hundred Years’ engagement (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars in the midst of Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capacity in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French lawlessness overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of radical history’s prehistoric republics and drafting the upholding of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took facility and time-honored the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. similar to the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous taking office of governments culminating once the opening of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World achievement I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World accomplishment II, but came below pastime by the Axis powers in 1940. subsequently liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was usual and well ahead dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s, similar to most retaining close economic and military associates afterward France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World pedigree Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving just about 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country when the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing aptitude parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs competently in international rankings of education, health care, vivaciousness expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great facility in global affairs, visceral one of the five remaining members of the united Nations Security Council gone the capability to veto and an approved nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member let in of the European sticking to and the Eurozone, and a aficionada of the bureau of 7, North Atlantic concurrence executive (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and progress (OECD), the World Trade meting out (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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