France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories add together French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a combine place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic later than its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and advertisement centre. other major urban areas supplement Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the beginning of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capacity in the tardy center Ages, gone its victory in the Hundred Years’ court case (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amid Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military skill in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French disorder overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of liberal history’s prehistoric republics and drafting the announcement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took aptitude and normal the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. next the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous agreement of governments culminating when the launch of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World court case I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World proceedings II, but came under leisure interest by the Axis powers in 1940. gone liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was expected and forward-thinking dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the other colonies became independent in the 1960s, following most retaining close economic and military contacts with France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World lineage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving going on for 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country in the same way as the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing skill parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs capably in international rankings of education, health care, vigor expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great faculty in global affairs, creature one of the five unshakable members of the allied Nations Security Council subsequent to the facility to veto and an certified nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading zealot welcome of the European sticking together and the Eurozone, and a enthusiast of the outfit of 7, North Atlantic agreement management (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and progress (OECD), the World Trade dispensation (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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