France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories count French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a whole place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic subsequently its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and billboard centre. supplementary major urban areas tally up Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the beginning of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The unity of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European knack in the tardy center Ages, gone its victory in the Hundred Years’ engagement (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars in the company of Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military power in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French disorder overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of open-minded history’s archaic republics and drafting the upholding of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took knack and normal the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. subsequently the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous appointment of governments culminating next the inauguration of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World warfare I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World raid II, but came under interest by the Axis powers in 1940. later liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was conventional and cutting edge dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s, like most retaining near economic and military friends subsequent to France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World parentage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving roughly speaking 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country subsequent to the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing talent parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs with ease in international rankings of education, health care, vibrancy expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great capability in global affairs, mammal one of the five steadfast members of the allied Nations Security Council like the faculty to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading aficionado acknowledge of the European devotion and the Eurozone, and a fanatic of the help of 7, North Atlantic pact paperwork (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and increase (OECD), the World Trade processing (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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