France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories swell French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a total place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic taking into account its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and poster centre. supplementary major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capability in the late middle Ages, in imitation of its victory in the Hundred Years’ exploit (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars with Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military talent in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French chaos overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of broadminded history’s very old republics and drafting the verification of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took facility and acknowledged the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. behind the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous concurrence of governments culminating gone the instigation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World skirmish I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World clash II, but came below motion by the Axis powers in 1940. later liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was acknowledged and forward-looking dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly all the further colonies became independent in the 1960s, subsequently most retaining close economic and military connections in imitation of France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World stock Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving re 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country like the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capacity parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs capably in international rankings of education, health care, vivaciousness expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great facility in global affairs, visceral one of the five unshakable members of the allied Nations Security Council later than the knack to veto and an ascribed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading fanatic give leave to enter of the European sticking to and the Eurozone, and a supporter of the charity of 7, North Atlantic agreement dispensation (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and move on (OECD), the World Trade management (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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