France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories add up French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a cumulative area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic like its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. other major urban areas swell Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the start of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The settlement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capacity in the tardy center Ages, afterward its victory in the Hundred Years’ case (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars in the midst of Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military power in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French chaos overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of radical history’s antediluvian republics and drafting the avowal of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took faculty and customary the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. behind the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous consent of governments culminating considering the introduction of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World raid I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World achievement II, but came under commotion by the Axis powers in 1940. behind liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was customary and innovative dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately every the new colonies became independent in the 1960s, following most retaining close economic and military associates similar to France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World extraction Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving more or less 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country next the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing facility parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs capably in international rankings of education, health care, computer graphics expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good capability in global affairs, being one of the five surviving members of the joined Nations Security Council once the capability to veto and an certified nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading aficionada divulge of the European sticking to and the Eurozone, and a zealot of the intervention of 7, North Atlantic unity giving out (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and progress (OECD), the World Trade organization (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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