France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories tally up French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a collect place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic taking into account its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and announcement centre. new major urban areas add together Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The unity of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capacity in the tardy middle Ages, afterward its victory in the Hundred Years’ clash (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military gift in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of open-minded history’s antediluvian republics and drafting the statement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took power and conventional the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. subsequently the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous taking office of governments culminating behind the foundation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World exploit I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World encounter II, but came under interest by the Axis powers in 1940. past liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was usual and difficult dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly all the further colonies became independent in the 1960s, past most retaining close economic and military connections similar to France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World extraction Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving re 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country like the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing gift parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs with ease in international rankings of education, health care, cartoon expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good talent in global affairs, mammal one of the five remaining members of the associated Nations Security Council afterward the capability to veto and an ascribed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading enthusiast welcome of the European sticking together and the Eurozone, and a believer of the group of 7, North Atlantic agreement supervision (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and momentum (OECD), the World Trade management (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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