France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories count French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a amassed area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic like its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and announcement centre. other major urban areas total Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the initiation of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European facility in the tardy center Ages, as soon as its victory in the Hundred Years’ engagement (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars in the midst of Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military facility in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French chaos overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of innovative history’s antique republics and drafting the pronouncement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capacity and time-honored the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. like the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous taking office of governments culminating in the manner of the creation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World prosecution I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World dogfight II, but came under interest by the Axis powers in 1940. afterward liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was acknowledged and progressive dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately every the supplementary colonies became independent in the 1960s, as soon as most retaining close economic and military connections in the same way as France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World parentage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving as regards 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country as soon as the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing gift parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs competently in international rankings of education, health care, vibrancy expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great capacity in global affairs, creature one of the five surviving members of the united Nations Security Council like the talent to veto and an recognized nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading zealot declare of the European linkage and the Eurozone, and a aficionada of the organization of 7, North Atlantic agreement admin (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and evolve (OECD), the World Trade executive (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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