France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories tally French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a gather together area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic in the same way as its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and want ad centre. additional major urban areas enlarge Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The settlement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European facility in the late center Ages, later its victory in the Hundred Years’ engagement (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars with Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military facility in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French disorder overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of unprejudiced history’s archaic republics and drafting the confirmation of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took aptitude and normal the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. in the manner of the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous taking office of governments culminating in the manner of the creation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World conflict I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World feat II, but came below pursuit by the Axis powers in 1940. gone liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was standard and highly developed dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the extra colonies became independent in the 1960s, once most retaining near economic and military connections subsequently France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World pedigree Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving on 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country in the manner of the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capacity parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs capably in international rankings of education, health care, vigor expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good capability in global affairs, innate one of the five long-lasting members of the allied Nations Security Council when the gift to veto and an attributed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading aficionada declare of the European linkage and the Eurozone, and a enthusiast of the society of 7, North Atlantic agreement meting out (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and fee (OECD), the World Trade management (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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