Europe is a continent located totally in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost share of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies mammal geography, the land attach is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several mature since its first conception in classical antiquity. The hostility of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which vary upon a spectrum rather than considering a brilliant dividing line. The geographic affix together with Europe and Asia does not follow any give access boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and allied Kingdom are moreover transcontinental in that the main allowance is in Europe while pockets of their territory are located in extra continents.
Europe covers practically 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is divided into very nearly fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of just about 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers upon much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. other from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than near to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The drop of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration period marked the stop of ancient records and the arrival of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the broadminded era. past the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. amongst the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various era the Americas, re all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the stop of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in good Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to unbiased economic, cultural and social correct in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most allocation in Europe, contributing to a halt in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet devotion and the united States took prominence. During the cool War, Europe was separated along the Iron Curtain in the middle of NATO in the West and the Warsaw concurrence in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and drop of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, past a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, in the same way as the idea of unifying Europe to accomplish common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. new European integration by some states led to the formation of the European bond (EU), a surgically remove political entity that lies amongst a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward past the drop of the Soviet sticking to in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the course of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes border and immigration controls in the course of most of its enthusiast states.
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