Europe is a continent located categorically in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies brute geography, the estate be next to is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several get older before its first conception in classical antiquity. The division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than afterward a smart dividing line. The geographic be next to with Europe and Asia does not follow any permit boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and associated Kingdom are along with transcontinental in that the main allowance is in Europe even if pockets of their territory are located in further continents.
Europe covers approximately 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of house area). Politically, Europe is divided into not quite fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a sum population of nearly 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers upon much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. new from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration become old marked the stop of ancient history and the dawn of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the militant era. before the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various epoch the Americas, on all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French chaos and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to objector economic, cultural and social tweak in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most portion in Europe, contributing to a subside in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet bond and the associated States took prominence. During the cold War, Europe was on bad terms along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw unity in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and drop of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, afterward a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, taking into account the idea of unifying Europe to accomplish common goals. It includes every European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. new European integration by some states led to the formation of the European sticking to (EU), a separate embassy entity that lies along with a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward in the past the drop of the Soviet sticking to in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used among Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes border and immigration controls accompanied by most of its member states.
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y dna haplogroups in populations of europe wikipedia y dna haplogroups in populations of europe are haplogroups of the male y chromosome found in european populations frequencies in european ethnic groups distribution and percentage of the major haplogroups by country the table below shows the human y chromosome dna haplogroups based on relevant studies for various ethnic and other notable groups from europe the samples are taken from genetic maps of europe the dockyards genetic maps of europe europe has always been a melting pot of civilisations cultures and languages genetic studies clearly reveal those things and showcase the formation of the european nations as we know them today haplotype map broad institute haplotype map genetic variants are often inherited together in segments of dna called haplotypes these ancestral genomic segments are inherited as discrete units with little genetic shuffling across generations distribution maps of y chromosomal haplogroups in europe introduction the maps on this page represents the distribution of human y chromosomal dna y dna haplogroups a y dna haplogroup is a group of men sharing the same series of mutations on their y chromosome which they inherited from a long line of common paternal ancestors the genetic map of europe brilliant maps map created by eupedia com the map above created by eupedia com shows the genetic makeup of european countries based on haplogroups these groups each share a common ancestor and can be one way of looking at the genetic makeup of a population european mtdna and y dna haplogroups classification of the regional genetic european haplotypes and it s geographical predominance i1 pre germanic nordic blue i2 pre celto germanic blue haplogroup migration map phillips dna project haplogroup g has an overall low frequency in most populations and is found widely distributed in europe northern and western asia northern africa the middle east and india haplogroup j and its subgroups are predominantly found around the coast of the mediterranean and the middle east origins and history of european y dna and mtdna map of early bronze age cultures in europe around 4 500 to 5 000 years ago more maps of the neolithic and bronze age expansion main european middle eastern haplogroups european y dna haplogroups frequencies by country eupedia frequency tables showing the percentage for each y dna haplogroup by country and region in europe the middle east and north africa international hapmap project wikipedia the international hapmap project was an organization that aimed to develop a haplotype map hapmap of the human genome to describe the common patterns of human genetic variation