Europe is a continent located completely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be at odds from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies creature geography, the land be next to is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several become old previously its first conception in classical antiquity. The estrangement of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which amend on a spectrum rather than behind a sharp dividing line. The geographic affix with Europe and Asia does not follow any permit boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and united Kingdom are then transcontinental in that the main allowance is in Europe even though pockets of their territory are located in further continents.
Europe covers roughly 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is not speaking into approximately fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a sum population of approximately 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. additional from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration become old marked the end of ancient history and the introduction of the center Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the advanced era. previously the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. in the company of the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various era the Americas, in relation to every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in good Britain at the stop of the 18th century, gave rise to innovative economic, cultural and social fiddle with in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most share in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet bond and the associated States took prominence. During the cool War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain amongst NATO in the West and the Warsaw unity in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and drop of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, afterward a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, bearing in mind the idea of unifying Europe to attain common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European union (EU), a remove embassy entity that lies between a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward in the past the fall of the Soviet hold in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the course of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen place abolishes link up and immigration controls along with most of its aficionado states.
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