France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories tally up French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a cumulative area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic taking into consideration its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and public notice centre. extra major urban areas count up Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The agreement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capability in the late center Ages, in imitation of its victory in the Hundred Years’ charge (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars surrounded by Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military power in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French disorder overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of unprejudiced history’s antique republics and drafting the declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took knack and conventional the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. considering the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous concurrence of governments culminating with the opening of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World lawsuit I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World conflict II, but came below motion by the Axis powers in 1940. subsequently liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and far along dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly all the additional colonies became independent in the 1960s, when most retaining near economic and military contacts bearing in mind France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World parentage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving in relation to 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country in the same way as the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing knack parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs skillfully in international rankings of education, health care, vigor expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great capacity in global affairs, being one of the five surviving members of the united Nations Security Council past the faculty to veto and an approved nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading advocate make a clean breast of the European devotion and the Eurozone, and a aficionado of the intervention of 7, North Atlantic pact management (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and go forward (OECD), the World Trade organization (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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