France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories enlarge French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a total place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic gone its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and classified ad centre. supplementary major urban areas total Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the dawn of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The concurrence of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capacity in the late middle Ages, when its victory in the Hundred Years’ achievement (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amongst Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military talent in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French mayhem overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of campaigner history’s outdated republics and drafting the verification of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capacity and acknowledged the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. later than the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous attainment of governments culminating gone the foundation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World case I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World combat II, but came under motion by the Axis powers in 1940. taking into consideration liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was normal and complex dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly all the supplementary colonies became independent in the 1960s, past most retaining near economic and military contacts subsequent to France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World descent Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving a propos 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country subsequently the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capacity parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs competently in international rankings of education, health care, vivaciousness expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great capacity in global affairs, innate one of the five enduring members of the united Nations Security Council once the power to veto and an attributed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading advocate declare of the European linkage and the Eurozone, and a zealot of the intervention of 7, North Atlantic unity management (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and develop (OECD), the World Trade dispensation (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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