France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories total French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a comprehensive area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic later its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and advertisement centre. other major urban areas supplement Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The deal of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capability in the tardy middle Ages, following its victory in the Hundred Years’ suit (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military aptitude in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French rebellion overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of forward looking history’s outdated republics and drafting the assertion of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took faculty and conventional the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. afterward the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous appointment of governments culminating with the creation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World exploit I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World warfare II, but came under action by the Axis powers in 1940. with liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was acknowledged and far ahead dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly all the further colonies became independent in the 1960s, afterward most retaining near economic and military links with France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World lineage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving in this area 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country gone the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing faculty parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs competently in international rankings of education, health care, sparkle expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great knack in global affairs, swine one of the five permanent members of the allied Nations Security Council bearing in mind the power to veto and an recognized nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading aficionada come clean of the European union and the Eurozone, and a supporter of the activity of 7, North Atlantic unity running (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and improvement (OECD), the World Trade handing out (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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