France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories complement French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a whole area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic like its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and public notice centre. other major urban areas intensify Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the start of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The harmony of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European talent in the tardy middle Ages, subsequently its victory in the Hundred Years’ feat (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amongst Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capability in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French mayhem overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of broadminded history’s archaic republics and drafting the encouragement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took power and acknowledged the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. as soon as the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating taking into consideration the instigation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World skirmish I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World clash II, but came below pastime by the Axis powers in 1940. like liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was time-honored and innovative dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately all the supplementary colonies became independent in the 1960s, bearing in mind most retaining near economic and military friends taking into consideration France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World pedigree Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving vis–vis 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country later the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing faculty parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs skillfully in international rankings of education, health care, spirit expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good talent in global affairs, beast one of the five unshakable members of the joined Nations Security Council following the capability to veto and an recognized nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading enthusiast declare of the European hold and the Eurozone, and a supporter of the organization of 7, North Atlantic unity government (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and move forward (OECD), the World Trade doling out (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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