Europe is a continent located unconditionally in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost portion of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be estranged from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies beast geography, the estate border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several period previously its first conception in classical antiquity. The disaffection of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which adjust upon a spectrum rather than similar to a smart dividing line. The geographic affix surrounded by Europe and Asia does not follow any give access boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and joined Kingdom are moreover transcontinental in that the main allowance is in Europe even if pockets of their territory are located in additional continents.
Europe covers virtually 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of estate area). Politically, Europe is estranged into approximately fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of nearly 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers upon much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. additional from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than near to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The drop of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration mature marked the stop of ancient records and the introduction of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the protester era. since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. amongst the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various period the Americas, more or less every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to open-minded economic, cultural and social amend in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most portion in Europe, contributing to a fall in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet sticking to and the associated States took prominence. During the chilly War, Europe was estranged along the Iron Curtain in the midst of NATO in the West and the Warsaw concurrence in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and drop of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, when a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, later than the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals. It includes every European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. other European integration by some states led to the formation of the European union (EU), a separate diplomatic entity that lies in the middle of a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward past the drop of the Soviet grip in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the midst of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen place abolishes attach and immigration controls in the middle of most of its supporter states.
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