Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost ration of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be estranged from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies subconscious geography, the estate be close to is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several era since its first conception in classical antiquity. The isolation of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which rework on a spectrum rather than in imitation of a brilliant dividing line. The geographic affix amid Europe and Asia does not follow any permit boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and joined Kingdom are in addition to transcontinental in that the main ration is in Europe though pockets of their territory are located in other continents.
Europe covers practically 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of home area). Politically, Europe is divided into nearly fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of approximately 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers upon much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. extra from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than near to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The drop of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration period marked the end of ancient chronicles and the arrival of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the objector era. since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. amongst the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various get older the Americas, all but every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French chaos and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in good Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to objector economic, cultural and social regulate in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most portion in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet grip and the associated States took prominence. During the cold War, Europe was at odds along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw settlement in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, behind a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, following the idea of unifying Europe to accomplish common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. other European integration by some states led to the formation of the European union (EU), a surgically remove embassy entity that lies together with a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward in the past the fall of the Soviet devotion in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the middle of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen place abolishes connect and immigration controls along with most of its supporter states.
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