Europe is a continent located agreed in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost ration of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be divided from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies bodily geography, the house affix is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several grow old in the past its first conception in classical antiquity. The disaffection of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which vary upon a spectrum rather than in imitation of a sharp dividing line. The geographic border amongst Europe and Asia does not follow any confess boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and joined Kingdom are moreover transcontinental in that the main share is in Europe though pockets of their territory are located in extra continents.
Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is divided into nearly fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a sum population of nearly 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers upon much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. other from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration era marked the end of ancient history and the start of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the liberal era. in the past the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. in the middle of the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various era the Americas, vis–vis all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the stop of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in good Britain at the stop of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic, cultural and social correct in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decrease in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet sticking to and the allied States took prominence. During the chilly War, Europe was not speaking along the Iron Curtain with NATO in the West and the Warsaw concurrence in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, gone a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, similar to the idea of unifying Europe to reach common goals. It includes every European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. other European integration by some states led to the formation of the European devotion (EU), a sever embassy entity that lies amid a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward in the past the fall of the Soviet linkage in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used accompanied by Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen place abolishes be close to and immigration controls in the midst of most of its devotee states.
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