Europe is a continent located utterly in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost allowance of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be divided from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies mammal geography, the land link up is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several grow old back its first conception in classical antiquity. The division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which revise on a spectrum rather than taking into account a brilliant dividing line. The geographic attach between Europe and Asia does not follow any let in boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and associated Kingdom are next transcontinental in that the main allowance is in Europe even if pockets of their territory are located in new continents.
Europe covers practically 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of home area). Politically, Europe is divided into nearly fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a sum population of roughly 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers upon much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. extra from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than near to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration period marked the end of ancient history and the start of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the unbiased era. in the past the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various period the Americas, a propos every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French disorder and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the stop of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to avant-garde economic, cultural and social correct in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most share in Europe, contributing to a grow less in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet bond and the associated States took prominence. During the frosty War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain amongst NATO in the West and the Warsaw unity in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and drop of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, in imitation of a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, later the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals. It includes every European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. supplementary European integration by some states led to the formation of the European devotion (EU), a remove diplomatic entity that lies between a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward back the fall of the Soviet devotion in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used among Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen place abolishes border and immigration controls in the course of most of its member states.
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