Europe is a continent located completely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost share of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be on bad terms from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies swine geography, the house attach is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several grow old back its first conception in classical antiquity. The estrangement of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which amend upon a spectrum rather than subsequent to a brilliant dividing line. The geographic connect amongst Europe and Asia does not follow any divulge boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and associated Kingdom are after that transcontinental in that the main allocation is in Europe even though pockets of their territory are located in supplementary continents.
Europe covers nearly 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of house area). Politically, Europe is separated into not quite fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a sum population of virtually 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than near to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration become old marked the stop of ancient records and the beginning of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the broadminded era. back the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. in the middle of the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various become old the Americas, re every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French mayhem and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in good Britain at the stop of the 18th century, gave rise to enlightened economic, cultural and social amend in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took area for the most allowance in Europe, contributing to a end in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet grip and the united States took prominence. During the chilly War, Europe was estranged along the Iron Curtain in the company of NATO in the West and the Warsaw concurrence in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and drop of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, subsequent to a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, subsequently the idea of unifying Europe to accomplish common goals. It includes every European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European union (EU), a remove political entity that lies amongst a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward back the drop of the Soviet bond in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used among Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen place abolishes be next to and immigration controls among most of its member states.
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