Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost allocation of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies brute geography, the land link up is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several period back its first conception in classical antiquity. The isolation of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which correct on a spectrum rather than gone a sharp dividing line. The geographic be next to amongst Europe and Asia does not follow any allow in boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and associated Kingdom are with transcontinental in that the main allowance is in Europe though pockets of their territory are located in extra continents.
Europe covers not quite 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of house area). Politically, Europe is estranged into just about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of just about 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. new from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration time marked the end of ancient archives and the arrival of the center Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the campaigner era. in the past the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. amid the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various get older the Americas, going on for all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French chaos and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the stop of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in good Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to forward looking economic, cultural and social fine-tune in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most allowance in Europe, contributing to a fade away in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet sticking together and the united States took prominence. During the frosty War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain along with NATO in the West and the Warsaw agreement in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, later a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, bearing in mind the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European grip (EU), a cut off diplomatic entity that lies between a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet bond in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the middle of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes attach and immigration controls among most of its believer states.
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