Europe is a continent located extremely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost allocation of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be divided from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies being geography, the house be close to is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several epoch since its first conception in classical antiquity. The isolation of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which revise upon a spectrum rather than following a sharp dividing line. The geographic affix amid Europe and Asia does not follow any permit boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and allied Kingdom are as well as transcontinental in that the main ration is in Europe while pockets of their territory are located in other continents.
Europe covers just about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is estranged into practically fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a sum population of roughly 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than near to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration grow old marked the end of ancient history and the initiation of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the broadminded era. past the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. together with the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various time the Americas, going on for all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to campaigner economic, cultural and social fine-tune in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most portion in Europe, contributing to a stop in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet devotion and the associated States took prominence. During the chilly War, Europe was on bad terms along the Iron Curtain amongst NATO in the West and the Warsaw pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, subsequent to a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, considering the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. extra European integration by some states led to the formation of the European linkage (EU), a cut off diplomatic entity that lies with a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward before the drop of the Soviet grip in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the course of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen place abolishes affix and immigration controls in the middle of most of its zealot states.
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