Europe is a continent located completely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be divided from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies innate geography, the estate affix is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several mature in the past its first conception in classical antiquity. The unfriendliness of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which rework on a spectrum rather than in imitation of a brilliant dividing line. The geographic border between Europe and Asia does not follow any give leave to enter boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and allied Kingdom are as well as transcontinental in that the main share is in Europe while pockets of their territory are located in additional continents.
Europe covers virtually 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of home area). Politically, Europe is not speaking into virtually fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of more or less 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers upon much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. new from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than near to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The drop of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration period marked the stop of ancient chronicles and the start of the center Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the liberal era. past the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. amongst the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various era the Americas, a propos every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French lawlessness and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the stop of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in good Britain at the stop of the 18th century, gave rise to open-minded economic, cultural and social fiddle with in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took area for the most allocation in Europe, contributing to a fall in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet grip and the joined States took prominence. During the frosty War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain in the midst of NATO in the West and the Warsaw unity in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and drop of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, once a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, in imitation of the idea of unifying Europe to accomplish common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. additional European integration by some states led to the formation of the European hold (EU), a sever political entity that lies in the midst of a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward back the drop of the Soviet grip in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the middle of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen place abolishes attach and immigration controls accompanied by most of its believer states.
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