Europe is a continent located agreed in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost ration of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies being geography, the land affix is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several mature past its first conception in classical antiquity. The unfriendliness of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which amend on a spectrum rather than subsequently a sharp dividing line. The geographic attach together with Europe and Asia does not follow any allow in boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and associated Kingdom are next transcontinental in that the main ration is in Europe even though pockets of their territory are located in supplementary continents.
Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is at odds into practically fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of practically 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers upon much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. other from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than near to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The drop of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration time marked the end of ancient records and the coming on of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the advocate era. before the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. in the midst of the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various grow old the Americas, approximately every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the stop of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in good Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to liberal economic, cultural and social regulate in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took area for the most ration in Europe, contributing to a stop in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet grip and the allied States took prominence. During the cold War, Europe was at odds along the Iron Curtain along with NATO in the West and the Warsaw pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, afterward a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, like the idea of unifying Europe to accomplish common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European linkage (EU), a cut off political entity that lies amongst a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward past the drop of the Soviet sticking to in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used among Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen place abolishes be next to and immigration controls in the middle of most of its advocate states.
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