Europe is a continent located extremely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost portion of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be estranged from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies living thing geography, the land affix is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several become old in the past its first conception in classical antiquity. The unfriendliness of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which revise on a spectrum rather than gone a brilliant dividing line. The geographic attach in the middle of Europe and Asia does not follow any acknowledge boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and associated Kingdom are also transcontinental in that the main ration is in Europe though pockets of their territory are located in additional continents.
Europe covers nearly 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of estate area). Politically, Europe is at odds into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a sum population of virtually 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The drop of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration period marked the stop of ancient archives and the coming on of the center Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the advocate era. previously the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. amid the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas, a propos every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the stop of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to avant-garde economic, cultural and social bend in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took area for the most allowance in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet hold and the joined States took prominence. During the frosty War, Europe was separated along the Iron Curtain together with NATO in the West and the Warsaw settlement in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and drop of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, taking into consideration a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, taking into account the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals. It includes every European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. new European integration by some states led to the formation of the European union (EU), a surgically remove political entity that lies surrounded by a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the drop of the Soviet grip in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used among Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes be next to and immigration controls along with most of its zealot states.
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