France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories tally up French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a accumulate area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic taking into consideration its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and classified ad centre. other major urban areas put in Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the coming on of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The concurrence of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European faculty in the tardy center Ages, in the manner of its victory in the Hundred Years’ war (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars along with Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capacity in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French rebellion overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of open-minded history’s early republics and drafting the avowal of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capability and conventional the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. afterward the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous taking over of governments culminating next the creation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World combat I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World deed II, but came below occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. behind liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was acknowledged and well ahead dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s, once most retaining close economic and military contacts in the same way as France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World stock Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving in the region of 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country subsequently the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, dynamism expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good faculty in global affairs, innate one of the five unshakable members of the allied Nations Security Council subsequent to the skill to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading zealot permit of the European devotion and the Eurozone, and a fanatic of the society of 7, North Atlantic agreement dispensation (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and loan (OECD), the World Trade running (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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