France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories insert French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a entire sum area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic in the same way as its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and billboard centre. supplementary major urban areas intensify Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the beginning of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The agreement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capacity in the tardy middle Ages, once its victory in the Hundred Years’ act (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars together with Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French chaos overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of highly developed history’s primeval republics and drafting the pronouncement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took power and usual the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. bearing in mind the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous taking over of governments culminating subsequently the inauguration of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World lawsuit I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World act II, but came under leisure interest by the Axis powers in 1940. once liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was customary and far along dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the supplementary colonies became independent in the 1960s, similar to most retaining close economic and military associates past France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World descent Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving something like 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country next the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs with ease in international rankings of education, health care, vigor expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great gift in global affairs, innate one of the five long-lasting members of the joined Nations Security Council in the same way as the gift to veto and an ascribed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading fanatic confess of the European hold and the Eurozone, and a zealot of the charity of 7, North Atlantic agreement doling out (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and progress (OECD), the World Trade admin (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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