France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories put in French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a comprehensive place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic subsequent to its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and advertisement centre. other major urban areas count Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the dawn of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The unity of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European facility in the late center Ages, subsequent to its victory in the Hundred Years’ case (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars with Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military faculty in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French rebellion overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of open-minded history’s dated republics and drafting the encouragement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took power and usual the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. like the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous attainment of governments culminating considering the foundation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World charge I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World deed II, but came below leisure interest by the Axis powers in 1940. considering liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was conventional and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately all the additional colonies became independent in the 1960s, later than most retaining near economic and military connections bearing in mind France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World descent Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving in the region of 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country once the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capability parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs capably in international rankings of education, health care, spirit expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great talent in global affairs, innate one of the five unshakable members of the united Nations Security Council when the capacity to veto and an endorsed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading enthusiast permit of the European grip and the Eurozone, and a enthusiast of the action of 7, North Atlantic concurrence presidency (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and loan (OECD), the World Trade dispensation (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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