France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories combine French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a sum up place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic once its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and announcement centre. further major urban areas enlarge Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the introduction of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The harmony of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capability in the late middle Ages, in the same way as its victory in the Hundred Years’ skirmish (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars together with Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military faculty in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French revolution overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of objector history’s old-fashioned republics and drafting the encouragement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took gift and normal the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous concurrence of governments culminating later than the introduction of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World conflict I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World battle II, but came below pursuit by the Axis powers in 1940. once liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately every the new colonies became independent in the 1960s, similar to most retaining near economic and military contacts subsequent to France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World lineage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving concerning 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country later the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capacity parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs without difficulty in international rankings of education, health care, activity expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great knack in global affairs, visceral one of the five remaining members of the allied Nations Security Council past the aptitude to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading fanatic permit of the European bond and the Eurozone, and a devotee of the action of 7, North Atlantic agreement government (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and further (OECD), the World Trade running (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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