Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost allocation of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be divided from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies bodily geography, the land attach is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several mature back its first conception in classical antiquity. The separation of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which modify upon a spectrum rather than later than a brilliant dividing line. The geographic be close to in the midst of Europe and Asia does not follow any come clean boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and joined Kingdom are also transcontinental in that the main allocation is in Europe even if pockets of their territory are located in extra continents.
Europe covers more or less 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of estate area). Politically, Europe is on bad terms into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of just about 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. new from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration time marked the stop of ancient history and the beginning of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the campaigner era. before the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various period the Americas, going on for all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French mayhem and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in great Britain at the stop of the 18th century, gave rise to forward looking economic, cultural and social tweak in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most share in Europe, contributing to a stop in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet union and the joined States took prominence. During the frosty War, Europe was estranged along the Iron Curtain amid NATO in the West and the Warsaw agreement in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and drop of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, taking into account a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, similar to the idea of unifying Europe to reach common goals. It includes every European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. extra European integration by some states led to the formation of the European devotion (EU), a cut off diplomatic entity that lies with a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward back the fall of the Soviet union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used accompanied by Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen place abolishes be next to and immigration controls in the course of most of its advocate states.
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