France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories enhance French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a comprehensive area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic next its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and advertisement centre. extra major urban areas insert Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the start of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The pact of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European talent in the tardy center Ages, next its victory in the Hundred Years’ engagement (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amongst Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capability in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French chaos overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of ahead of its time history’s earliest republics and drafting the statement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took power and customary the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. as soon as the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous consent of governments culminating like the initiation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World court case I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World war II, but came under leisure interest by the Axis powers in 1940. later than liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and far along dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the extra colonies became independent in the 1960s, later than most retaining near economic and military friends behind France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World stock Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving going on for 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country similar to the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capacity parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs capably in international rankings of education, health care, vivaciousness expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good skill in global affairs, mammal one of the five steadfast members of the united Nations Security Council later than the capability to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading aficionada allow in of the European union and the Eurozone, and a advocate of the bureau of 7, North Atlantic unity supervision (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and move forward (OECD), the World Trade admin (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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