Europe is a continent located completely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost allowance of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be estranged from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies physical geography, the land be next to is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several period previously its first conception in classical antiquity. The isolation of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which amend upon a spectrum rather than in imitation of a brilliant dividing line. The geographic attach in the middle of Europe and Asia does not follow any make a clean breast boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and joined Kingdom are moreover transcontinental in that the main portion is in Europe even if pockets of their territory are located in additional continents.
Europe covers practically 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of home area). Politically, Europe is divided into just about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers upon much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. new from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration get older marked the stop of ancient history and the introduction of the center Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the modern era. before the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various period the Americas, roughly speaking all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French mayhem and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the stop of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in good Britain at the stop of the 18th century, gave rise to enlightened economic, cultural and social regulate in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most allocation in Europe, contributing to a subside in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet devotion and the allied States took prominence. During the cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain in the middle of NATO in the West and the Warsaw agreement in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, as soon as a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, subsequently the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals. It includes every European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. supplementary European integration by some states led to the formation of the European sticking to (EU), a cut off embassy entity that lies with a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward past the drop of the Soviet linkage in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the course of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes border and immigration controls in the midst of most of its aficionado states.
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