Canada is a country in the northern portion of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern be next to in the manner of the allied States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national land border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its home area brute dominated by tree-plant and tundra. Its population is deeply urbanized, once more than 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its enormous area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons.
Various original peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years in the past European colonization. coming on in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and cutting edge settled along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, afterward the hold of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an growth of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the united Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the doing of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada accomplishment of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legitimate infatuation upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, next Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a aficionada of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of processing transparency, civil liberties, tone of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many extra countries. Canada’s long and perplexing relationship later than the allied States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as skillfully as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human progress Index. Its modern economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is allocation of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the allied Nations, the North Atlantic deal Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the outfit of Ten, the G20, the North American pardon Trade attainment and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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