Canada is a country in the northern portion of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern connect later than the allied States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national home border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its estate area swine dominated by tree-plant and tundra. Its population is severely urbanized, subsequently beyond 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its gigantic area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to warm summers in the southern regions, subsequently four determined seasons.
Various native peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years back European colonization. beginning in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and later granted along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, as soon as the devotion of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an buildup of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the united Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the affect of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada prosecution of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal compulsion on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, bearing in mind Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a believer of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the course of the highest in international measurements of handing out transparency, civil liberties, setting of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many further countries. Canada’s long and complex membership next the allied States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as capably as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human improvement Index. Its campaigner economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the associated Nations, the North Atlantic concurrence Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the society of Ten, the G20, the North American release Trade taking over and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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