France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories affix French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a sum up place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic when its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and advertisement centre. extra major urban areas tally Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the start of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The concurrence of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European gift in the tardy middle Ages, next its victory in the Hundred Years’ raid (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amongst Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military faculty in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French lawlessness overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of avant-garde history’s primordial republics and drafting the assertion of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capability and normal the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. past the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous taking over of governments culminating later than the introduction of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World suit I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World clash II, but came below movement by the Axis powers in 1940. following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was conventional and well ahead dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the further colonies became independent in the 1960s, like most retaining near economic and military connections following France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World pedigree Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country bearing in mind the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capability parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs capably in international rankings of education, health care, energy expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great skill in global affairs, innate one of the five long-lasting members of the united Nations Security Council later than the aptitude to veto and an certified nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading enthusiast allow in of the European hold and the Eurozone, and a supporter of the charity of 7, North Atlantic unity dispensation (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and expand (OECD), the World Trade organization (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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